Dementia Today.net

Site updated at Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Living with Dementia

Dementia

Dementia: historical overview

Since the second edition of this article, no ground-breaking scholarly work has been published that may challenge the historical hypotheses propounded therein on the development of the concept of dementia (Berrios, 2000a); indeed, the ‘constructionist’ view has gained support from the way in which the nosological surface of ‘dementia’ has been redrawn during the… Dementia: historical overview   



Dementia: general aspects - Terms

Up to the 1700s, states of cognitive and behavioural deterioration of whatever origin ending up in psychosocial incompetence were called amentia, dementia, imbecility, morosis, fatuitas, anoea, foolishness, stupidity, simplicity, carus, idiocy, dotage and senility. In Roman times, the word ‘dementia’ was also used to mean ‘being out of one’s mind, insanity, madness, folly’ (Lewis… Dementia: general aspects - Terms   



Behaviours redolent of current dementia during this period

In the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (and indeed of earlier periods), it is possible to recognize behaviours that nowadays we may wish to refer as dementia being reported under different rubrics. For example, in relation to ‘Stupidity or Foolishness’, Thomas Willis (1684) wrote:

although it chiefly belongs to the rational… Behaviours redolent of current dementia during this period   



Dementia during the nineteenth century

There is a major difference between eighteenth-century views on dementia and what the historian finds a century later when dementia starts to refer more or less specifically to states of cognitive impairment mostly affecting the elderly, and almost always irreversible. The word ‘amentia’ was no longer used in this context and started to name… Dementia during the nineteenth century   



The fragmentation of dementia

During the second half of the nineteenth century, and based on the clinical observations and reconceptualization carried out by the French, German and English writers mentioned above, dementia starts to be considered as a syndrome and hence could be attached to a variety of disorders. The primary classification was to be between primary and… The fragmentation of dementia   



The vesanic dementias

The term ‘vesanic dementia’ began to be used after the 1840s to refer to the clinical states of cognitive disorganization following insanity (Berrios,  1987);  its meaning has changed with equal speed alongside psychiatric theory. According to the unitary insanity notion, vesanic dementia was a terminal stage (after mania and melancholia); according to degeneration theory,… The vesanic dementias   



The concept of arteriosclerotic dementia

Old age was considered an important factor in the development of arteriosclerosis (Berrios, 1994) and a risk factor in diseases such as melancholia (Berrios, 1991). By 1910, there was a trend to include all dementias under ‘mental disorders of cerebral arteriosclerosis’ (Barrett, 1913). Arteriosclerosis, might be generalized or cerebral, inherited or acquired, and caused… The concept of arteriosclerotic dementia   



Presbyophrenia and confabulation

The word ‘presbyophrenia’ was coined by Kahlbaum (1863) to name a subtype of the paraphrenias (insanities occurring during periods of biological change). Presbyophrenia was a form of paraphrenia senilis characterized by amnesia, disorientation, delusional misidentification and confabulation.

Ignored for more than 30 years, the term reappeared in the work of Wernicke, Fischer and Kraepelin.… Presbyophrenia and confabulation   



Alzheimer’s disease

AD has become the prototypical form of dementia. From this point of view, a study of its origins should throw light on the evolution of the concept of dementia. The writings of Alzheimer, Fischer, Fuller, Lafora, Bonfiglio, Perusini, Ziveri, Kraepelin and other protagonists are deceptively fresh, and this makes anachronistic reading inevitable.  However,  the… Alzheimer’s disease   



Vascular dementia - Preparing for your appointment

Dementia is the syndrome of symptoms such as memory loss and decreasing ability to handle the daily functions of life. Dementia is not an early form of Alzheimer’s or some less serious disease, it is simply a catch-all term that describes Alzheimer’s, Vascular Dementia, and other specific diseases. It is frequently used because people… Vascular dementia - Preparing for your appointment   



10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer’s and Dementia

How do you know if your parent has Alzheimer’s disease or dementia? If dad continually forgets where he puts his keys, or mom seems to get easily confused these days, does it mean they have Alzheimer’s? Not necessarily. Only a doctor can diagnose the condition. Every person experiences different symptoms, to different degrees. But… 10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer’s and Dementia   



Cognition and Cognitive Testing

As noted above, the diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment and dementia of the Alzheimer type both require the presence of memory impairment. To distinguish between MCI and DAT, it is important to determine the degree and course of memory impairment, the presence or absence of additional domains of cognitive dysfunction, and the impact of… Cognition and Cognitive Testing   



Structural Imaging

An important advance in the evaluation of people with suspected dementia of the Alzheimer type is the use of structural imaging to assess in vivo neuroanatomical changes. This technique can also be used in conjunction with neuropsychological test data to better understand the relationship between the structural brain changes and the cognitive… Structural Imaging   



Clinical Conclusions

Using an evidence-based review of the literature, the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology made three levels of recommendation for clinical practice related to the diagnosis and evaluation of individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia (Knopman et al. 2001; Petersen et al. 2001): standards were based on patient management… Clinical Conclusions   



New Direction In Alzheimer’s Research

In what they are calling a new direction in the study of Alzheimer’s disease, UC Santa Barbara scientists have made an important finding about what happens to brain cells that are destroyed in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. The results are published in the online version of The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Stuart Feinstein,… New Direction In Alzheimer’s Research   



Huntington’s Disease (Huntington’s Chorea)

What is Huntington’s Disease?

Huntington’s diseaseHuntington’s disease is a progressive disease that results in the slow loss of affected brain cells. It is an inherited condition that begins in adulthood. At present, typical Huntington’s disease is a lethal condition. Huntington’s disease is characterised by involuntary movements, dementia and psychological disturbances that worsen as the… Huntington’s Disease (Huntington’s Chorea)   



Study Helps Explain ‘Sundowning,’ an Anxiety Syndrome in Elderly Dementia Patients

New research provides the best evidence to date that the late-day anxiety and agitation sometimes seen in older institutionalized adults, especially those with dementia, has a biological basis in the brain.

The findings could help explain “sundowning,” a syndrome in which older adults show high levels of anxiety, agitation, general activity and delirium in… Study Helps Explain ‘Sundowning,’ an Anxiety Syndrome in Elderly Dementia Patients   



1 in 5 of HIV-infected develop dementia

HIV can hide in the brain, concealed from the immune system and antiviral drugs, and cause dementia in the victim.

The discovery unravels the link between HIV infection and HIV dementia. In fact, about one in five of those infected by HIV develop dementia.

The discovery unravels the link between HIV infection and HIV… 1 in 5 of HIV-infected develop dementia   



13,000 people in West Sussex living with dementia

IN WEST Sussex one in five people in the county will have a form of dementia during their lifetime. More than 13,000 people are currently living with dementia in the county.

Dementia is not a specific disease and can be caused by a number of different conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. People with dementia can… 13,000 people in West Sussex living with dementia   



How Diet And Obesity May Be Linked To Alzheimer’s

I was asked recently about the relationship between diet and Alzheimer’s disease. This is a great question since we tend to focus on more traditional health benefits of eating well, such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. This was in response to a recent study published in the journal Neurology.

In that study, Swedish… How Diet And Obesity May Be Linked To Alzheimer’s   



Living with Dementia

hiv dementia1 - risk factors for dementia1 - depression14 - early stage alzheimers1 - sleepiness1 - university of california2 - symptomatic memory loss1 - progressive neurodegenerative disorder1 - quetiapine1 - beta amyloid protein1 - parkinson's psychosis1 - pseudodementia2 - als1 - parkinson's drug2 - ssri2 - protective effect1 - cognitive functioning2 - abeta peptides1 - impaired memory1 - sleep loss1 - alzheimers and parkinsons1 - memory lapses2 - impaired balance and coordination1 - amyloid precursor protein6 - blood sugar3 - parkinson's7 - benadryl1 - healthy aging1 - elder care1 - frontal lobe dementia1 -