Site updated at Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Living with Dementia

Q: So are Alzheimer’s disease and dementia the same thing?

A: They are and they aren’t. Alzheimer’s disease is a major cause of dementiain fact the major causebut not all dementia is the result of Alzheimer’s. All people with Alzheimer’s disease have dementia, but not all people with dementia have Alzheimer’s.

Q: You’ve just reminded me of another term I’m curious about. What is senile dementia?

A: Senile dementia is a term used to refer to dementia in people 65 and olderprimarily dementias caused by progressive, degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s. In fact, some people still refer to Alzheimer’s as senile dementia. The term senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type is used for older individuals who have Alzheimer’s-like symptoms but whose disease has not been diagnosed with certainty. Traditionally, the term senile dementia was used to distinguish older Alzheimer’s victims from those whose disease occurred earlier in…

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Dementia - Living with dementia

Pick's disease and the frontal dementias

Dementias believed to be related to frontal lobe pathology have once again become of interest, and authors often invoke the name of Arnold Pick (Niery et al., 1988). However, when the great Prague neuropsychiatrist described the syndrome named after him, all he wanted was to draw attention to a form of localized (as opposed to diffuse) atrophy of the temporal lobe (Pick, 1892). This alteration was to give rise to a dysfunction of language and praxis, and be susceptible to diagnosis during life. Pick believed that lobar atrophies constituted a stage in the evolution of the senile dementias.

The story starts, as it should, before Pick. Louis Pierre Gratiolet (1854) was responsible for renaming the cerebral lobes after their overlying skull: thus 'anterior' became 'frontal' lobe. He made no assumption as to the function of the 'anterior extremity of the cerebral hemisphere'. 'Phrenologists', however, did and related reflective and perceptive functions (qualitatively defined) to the forehead (Anonymous, 1832) (for the science of phrenology see Combe, 1873; Lanteri-Laura, 1970). 'Modular' assumptions (i.e. a one-to-one correlation between mental function and brain site) involving the frontal lobes started only during the 1860s, following reports on dysfunction of language in lesions of the frontal lobes (Broca, 1861; Henderson, 1986). These claims ran parallel to those of Jackson's that the cerebral cortex was the general seat of personality and mind (Jackson, 1894). Meynert (1885) believed that 'the frontal lobes reach a high state of development in man' but still defined mental disorders as diseases of the 'fore-brain' (by which he meant 'prosencephalon' or human brain as a whole).... read more »

Huntington's Disease

Huntington's Disease (Huntington's Chorea)

Huntington's Disease (HD) is a brain disorder that affects a person's ability to think, talk, and move.

The disease destroys cells in the basal ganglia, the part of the brain that controls movement, emotion, and cognitive ability. HD is caused by a mutation in a gene on chromosome 4. The job of its protein product, huntingtin, is to direct the delivery of small packages (vesicles containing important molecules) to the outside of the cell. Normally, the coding region of this gene contains the DNA sequence "CAG" repeated again and again. The number of times this triplet is repeated varies from person to person, ranging from 10 to 26 times. People with HD have an abnormally high number of these CAG triplets, approximately 40 or more. This likely disrupts the function of the gene's protein product, but how the expansion of the CAG repeat causes disease is unknown. Somehow the brain cells of HD patients accumulate clumps of protein that become toxic, resulting in cell death. Some patients lose more than 25% of their brain cells before they die.

How do people get Huntington's Disease?
Huntington's disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that everyone who inherits the faulty gene will eventually get the disease. A parent with a mutation in the HD gene has a 50 percent chance of passing on the disease to their children.

Huntington's disease symptoms include:
  • Involuntary movements
  • Psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosis
  • Gait abnormalities with falling
  • Cognitive decline (dementia)

Patients with Huntington's disease possess a different gene than those without it. Neurologists at Emory are now able to predict if an at-risk patient will develop Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the gene huntingtin. The gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, which means that children of a person with Huntington's disease have a 50% chance of inheriting it. Every patient who inherits the gene ultimately develops the disease. ... read more »

Out of the shadows - Living with dementia

iron lady1 - alzheimer's-like tau tangles1 - cyclophilin a1 - alpha-synuclein7 - dementia changes1 - ipscs1 - reversible dementia syndrome1 - cognitive functions1 - mental exercises1 - neuronal degeneration1 - visual hallucinations1 - csf1 - cognition2 - lrp61 - alzheimer’s disease8 - prevent dementia4 - cognitive abilities1 - senile dementia4 - dementia friends1 - tasigna1 - sinequan1 - memory decline2 - neurofilaments1 - korsakoff syndrome3 - dementia screening1 - synthetic tau fibrils1 - prevent alzheimer's1 - pre-dementia2 - physical activity2 - dementia in elderly1 -